Mine and ERW contamination in Ethiopia stems from a series of internal and international armed conflicts, including the Ogaden war between Ethiopia and Somalia (1977-1978), and the Ethiopian-Eritrean war (1998-2000).
NPA was first involved as the implementer of the 2003–2004 Ethiopia Land Impact Survey (ELIS) conducted with the national authority. The Ethiopian Mine Action Office (EMAO) was established in 2001. NPA later became directly involved with capacity development initiatives, which resulted in the introduction of (Mine Detection Dogs) MDDs and specialised Technical Survey teams using the Land Release methodology for a nationwide evidence-based survey in a 2005–2007 project period and a 2008–2010 project period, later extended to 2011. In October 2011, the Government of Ethiopia announced that EMAO would be under review for disbandment in 2012 and NPA phased out its support project to EMAO when this was confirmed. Direct support activities to EMAO were phased out by the end of June 2012, and the NPA Humanitarian Disarmament Programme Ethiopia closure was effectively completed by 31 September 2012. The government’s decision is based on the viewpoint that EMAO has fulfilled its mandate to a sufficient standard where it is no longer required to remain as an institution, and that residual risk and the areas remaining to be cleared will be more cost effectively dealt with by the Ethiopian Ministry of National Defence.